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Human Chorionic Gonadtropin

Catalog Number: hCG HU-LB29
Description: hCG ELISA
Sample Type: Serum
Sample Size: 10 µl
Available Sizes: 96 Wells
Range: 0-300 mIU/ml
Sensitivity: 2.0 mIU/ml
Incubation: 1 hour(s) 20 minutes (s)
Protocol: hCG ELISA
Regulatory Status: RUO
Product Distribution: Available worldwide

Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) ELISA - For the quantitative determination of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) concentration in human Serum.
Human chorionic gonadotropin is a glycoprotein hormone produced by normal trophoblast cells of the placenta during pregnancy. It is also is produced by trophoblast cells in hydatidiform mole and choriocarcinoma (trophoblast diseases), and in patients with germ cell tumors (testicular choriocarcinoma, placental site tumors and germ cell carcinomas of the ovary) and sometimes in those with other malignancies. Small amount of hCG may also be produced by the pituitary gland. Human CG (hCG) is the hormone associated with the maintenance of pregnancy.
Human chorionic gonadotropin is a member of the glycoprotein hormone (GPH) family. Like the other glycoprotein hormones, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), hCG is composed of two subunits, alpha and beta. Alpha subunits of these various glycoprotein hormones are
structurally very similar, but beta subunits differ in amino acid sequences. These differences are responsible for their biological and immunological specificity. The alphasubunit of hCG is a glycopeptide of 92 amino acids and the ß-subunit of hCG is a glycopeptide of 145 amino acids. HCG has a molecular weight of 50,000 daltons,
consists of an alpha subunit of 18,000 daltons and a beta subunit of 32,000 daltons. Recent elucidation of the crystal structure of hCG has revealed that all these subunits share the so-called cystin-knot structural motif with growth factors such as nerve (NGF), platelet-derived (PDGF). Although the pituitary secretes three related glycoprotein hormones, LH, FSH, and TSH, hCG is the only one to produced by the placenta in primates to maintain the steroid hormone secretions of the corpus luteum. Predominantly intact hCG is present in serum and urine samples in normal pregnancy, as well as in hydatidiform mole. In women with extrauterine or ectopic pregnancies, unduly low hCG levels may be detected. Variable levels of hCG mostly intact hCG, may be present from individuals with persistent trophoblastic disease. Elevated concentrations are also present in cases of early pregnancy loss (EPL) or biochemical pregnancy, gestational Down syndrome. Bladder cancer, ovarian cancer and certain other malignancies may generate a small amount of hCG alpha and beta subunit. Commonly, the amount of subunit is insufficient for combination to occur to make intact hCG.